This summer I conducted qualitative research in Temuco, Chile where I interviewed Mapuche and non-Mapuche community leaders and bureaucrats to understand the heterogeneity among the Mapuche and the historical precedent for these divisions. While in Chile I conducted seven semi-structured interviews, built networks with people in Chile, went to the archives and a museum on the Mapuche. Through my interviews and conversations, I found that the heterogeneity across Mapuche organizations is also present at the individual and community level. My fieldwork findings lead me to my new dissertation research questions: What are the preferences of the Mapuche for being part of the Chilean states? And under what conditions are Mapuche activists more likely to utilize (or support) violence to achieve their overarching goals?